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GEO 103 Physical Geology (4 credits)

An introduction to the basic principles of the earth sciences - geology, geochemistry, and geophysics - and their relation to materials and processes acting upon and within the Earth's crust. Consideration is given to rocks and minerals, structures and deformation of the Earth's crust, earthquakes, and volcanism, and the work of the wind, running water, ground water, the oceans and glaciers upon the Earth's surface. This course, together with GEO 104, satisfies the sequential laboratory science requirement of the Math-Science curriculum and also satisfies the requirements of those curricula demanding science or laboratory science courses. Three one-hour lectures or equivalent and one three-hour laboratory per week. No prerequisite.

GEO 105 Oceanography (3 credits)

Introductory survey of oceanography relating the physical, chemical, geological, biological, meteorological, and engineering aspects of the field. This course satisfies the science elective requirement of the Math-Science curriculum and also satisfies the science requirement of those curricula which require science. Three class hours or equivalent per week. No prerequisite.

GEO 105L Oceanography Laboratory (1 credit)

Includes investigation of ocean waters in terms of physical and chemical properties, and the interactions of the water on air, sediments, coastal areas, and life forms. This course is intended for those who wish to deepen their understanding of oceanography and/or have a laboratory science requirement to satisfy. One three-hour session per week. Prerequisite/ co-requisite: GEO 105.

GEO 106 Environmental Geology (3 credits)

Introduction to the everyday geological problems of our world community. Topics which are covered include population growth, natural resources, water pollution, waste disposal, energy sources, and environmental health hazards. Selected other topics of concern are earthquakes, landslides, and flood dangers. The course satisfies the science elective requirement of the Math-Science curriculum and also satisfies the science requirement of those curricula which require science. Three class hours or equivalent per week. No prerequisite.

GEO 106L Environmental Geology Lab (1 credit)

Application of geological tools to the solution of environmental problems. Use of maps and aerial photographic interpretation and other analytical methods in seeking data on environment. Field trips include trips to local environmental problem and industrial sites. This course is intended for those who wish to deepen their understanding of environmental geology and/or have a laboratory science requirement to satisfy. One three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite or co-requisite: GEO 106.

GEO 107 Violent Earth: Natural Hazards and Disasters (3 credits)

In this course, students will investigate the earth processes that have a direct, often sudden and violent, impact on human society. Tornadoes, floods, wildfires, earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, and volcanic eruptions are naturally occurring events that often have major impacts on humans. Students will explore the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere in their study of extreme events. Each disaster will be presented first as a hazard, then as a case study where students will investigate the human response to each extreme event and discuss prediction, risk analysis, and policy implications related to disaster preparedness, mitigation, and prevention measures. At the end of the course, students will understand the earth processes that drive hazardous events, illustrate how these processes interact with our civilization, and describe how we can better adjust to their often devastating effects. Satisfies the science elective requirement of the Math/Science Curriculum and also satisfies the science requirement for those curricula that require science. GEO 107 consists of three one-hour lectures per week or equivalent. Prerequisite: MAT 087 or higher.

GEO 151 Physical Geology (3 credits)

This course is an introduction to the science of geology.  This course considers the various rock and mineral types and their chemistry, the structures and deformation of the Earth's crust due to plate tectonics and related phenomena like earthquakes and volcanism.  It also deals with the actions of the wind, running water, ground water, and glacial ice in shaping the surface of the Earth.  Topics covered include aspects of geochemistry, geophysics, geomorphology, geochronology, stratigraphy, and hydrology.   This course along with its optional laboratory course GEO-151L satisfies the sequential laboratory science requirement for the Math-Science curriculum. GEO-151 consists of three one-hour lectures or equivalent. Prerequisite MAT-087 or higher.

GEO 151L Physical Geology Lab (1 credit)

This is the laboratory component to the Physical Geology lecture (GEO-151).  The laboratory provides practical hands-on experience in a variety of geologic disciplines including: collection and analysis of geologic data, identifying common rocks and minerals samples, examination and interpreting of aerial photos, satellite images, topographic and geologic maps, and the construct and analyze topographic profiles. Techniques used in relative and absolute age dating of geologic materials, evaluation of earthquake hazards and investigation of stream and groundwater environments will also be explored.  This course is intended for those who wish a deeper understanding of the science of geology and/or have a laboratory science requirement to satisfy. One three hour session per week.  Prerequisite/co-requisite: MAT-087 or higher. Co-requisite: GEO-151.

GEO 152 Historical Geology (3 credits)

A detailed study of the physical, chemical, and biological evolution of Earth utilizing concepts and principles introduced in Physical Geology.  Stratigraphic and tectonic principles are utilized in the interpretation of geologic history with emphasis on regional geologic history. Both lecture and laboratory will include fossil identification, geologic mapping, microscopic analysis of rocks and fossils, and fieldtrips using geologic field techniques. GEO-152 consists of three one-hour lectures or equivalent per week.  Prerequisites: GEO-151 and GEO-151L.

GEO 152L Historical Geology Laboratory (1 credit)

This laboratory component to Historical Geology Lecture (GEO-152) provides hands on application to theories and concepts discussed in the lecture component. Student will revisit the most common rock forming minerals and rocks while learning how to interpret geologic maps. A main theme of this laboratory is identifying fossils and their paleoecology. Students will learn field techniques such as measuring stratigraphic columns, using a brunton compass, and determining the speed of dinosaurs based from trackways. Multiple fieldtrips during lab will provide ample application of field techniques and environmental interpretation. Common fossils found in New York state will be emphasized, but students will also have an overview of Earth's total 4.56 billion year history of evolution. This laboratory is designed to provide a student the opportunity to use geologic and evolutionary principles. One three hour session per week. GEO-152 must be taken previously or concurrently with GEO-152L. Prerequisite: GEO-151, GEO-151L.

GEO 203 Introduction to Forensic Geology (4 credits)

Forensic Geology is designed for math/science majors, criminal justice majors and non-science majors who have an interest in forensic science and the academic and/or professional experience needed to handle the subject matter. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the use of different geologic materials and techniques that can be used to solve crimes and disputes. Details from actual criminal cases and disputes will be used as examples in this course. This course includes a variety of geologic topics including rocks, minerals, other geologic materials, geologic and topographic maps, fossils, air particles and pollutants, and soils. Laboratory and classroom experience will include the analysis of different techniques employed in forensic geology. These techniques include fluorescence, stereoscopic analysis, optical microscopy, and various chemical analyses. Prerequisite: GEO 103 or 106, or Permission of Instructor.

GEO 205 Hydrology (4 credits)

This course introduces students to fundamental concepts and methods of analysis pertaining to the flow of surface/groundwater, water resources, water quality and contamination. Laboratory and classroom experience will include: the physics of water; descriptions and mathematics of water's movement in the surface water, vadose and groundwater settings; basic elements of soil mechanics and soil description; exploratory drilling and well installation; conducting and analyzing a pump test; surface water flow analysis and measurement; and analysis techniques of water chemistry. Several laboratories involve field work in and around the Onondaga campus measuring stream flow, installing and developing wells, testing wells, and collecting water samples. This course prepares students for the environmental field (governmental and consulting) and graduate programs in the environmental and hydrologic sciences. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory per week. Prerequisite: MAT 143 or 151. Spring semesters only.

GEO 290 Geology of the Bahamas (3 credits)

A two-week, three credit course of fieldwork in biology and geology in a tropical marine setting. Environments, present and past, to be studied by snorkeling and walking include: beach, intertidal, coral reef, and associated shallow water habitats. Studies include evening lectures and independent research projects. Location: The Gerace Research Center, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. San Salvador is at the eastern end of a chain of 700 islands and cays that form the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. Requirements: The program is open to undergraduate and graduate students. No prior coursework is required to participate; however, some background in general biology, geology, or oceanography is helpful.